Full Moon, Friday, June 9 – Flight Nazca Lines and excursion to Temple Cahuasi. In the evening a bus to Lima.
We went first to visit the Temple of Cahuasi seeing that the weather did not allow flights yet over the Nazca lines. This Sacred Site allowed a awe of Silence and also a Ceremony for someone within Arthur and Pieter’s clients who had passed over so compassionately and willingly. The guide allowed us to enter one of the Ceremonial centers to do this in a spiral movement flow. Have no words for our experience here.
How synchronicity arranged this day with the flight over the Nazca lines and figures. We were split up into three groups for this adventure. There was a touring guide who assisted here who seemed to have his own agenda. Some strange “ego minded” occurrences happened here. One of them was at the end that he tried to push our group into a private taxi bus but just in time our touring bus and chauffeur entered and we quickly moved out of the taxi.
Some images some of the group members made of this flight.
KIN 17 – Red Self Existing Earth of the Crystal Rabbit Moon of Cooperation, light code 17:4:11 to create a plan of action defining the boundaries and create a blue print for success. To navigate and evolve the synchronicity of the spiral movement. The power of Earth is a loving leading empowerment that asks to stay in movement, to let go off and trust the outcome of the pathway.
Chant: Ik, Ben, Manik, Kan, CABAN
Planets: Uranus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter
Tone 4 is to measure and define the form
The Nazca Lines
The Nazca Lines /ˈnæzkɑː/ are a series of large ancient geoglyphs in the Nasca Desert, in southern Peru. The largest figures are up to 1,200 ft (370 m) long. They were designated as a Unesco World Heritage Site in 1994. The high, arid plateau stretches more than 80 km (50 mi) between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the Pampas de Jumana, about 400 km south of Lima. Although some local geoglyphs resemble Paracas motifs, scholars believe the Nazca Lines were created by the Nazca culture between 500 BCE and 500 CE The figures vary in complexity. Hundreds are simple lines and geometric shapes; more than 70 are zoom morphic designs of animals, such as birds, fish, llamas, jaguars, and monkeys, or human figures. Other designs include phytomorphic shapes, such as trees and flowers.
The designs are shallow lines made in the ground by removing the reddish pebbles and uncovering the whitish/grayish ground beneath. Scholars differ in interpreting the purpose of the designs but, in general, they ascribe religious significance to them.
Because of its isolation and the dry, windless, stable climate of the plateau, the lines have mostly been naturally preserved. Extremely rare changes in weather may temporarily alter the general designs. As of 2012, the lines are said to have been deteriorating because of an influx of squatters inhabiting the lands.
Contrary to the popular belief that the lines and figures can be seen only with the aid of flight, they are visible from the surrounding foothills.
Archeologists, ethnologists, and anthropologists have studied the ancient Nazca culture to try to determine the purpose of the lines and figures. One hypothesis is that the Nazca people created them to be seen by their gods in the sky. Kosok and Reiche advanced a purpose related to astronomy and cosmology: the lines were intended to act as a kind of observatory, to point to the places on the distant horizon where the sun and other celestial bodies rose or set in the solstices. Many prehistoric indigenous cultures in the Americas and elsewhere constructed earthworks that combined such astronomical sighting with their religious cosmology, as did the later Mississippian culture at Cahokia in present-day United States. Another example is Stonehenge in England.
Gerald Hawkins and Anthony Aveni, experts in archaeoastronomy, concluded in 1990 that the evidence was insufficient to support such an astronomical explanation.
Reiche asserted that some or all of the figures represented constellations. By 1998, Phyllis B. Pitluga, a protégé of Reiche and senior astronomer at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, had concluded that the animal figures were “representations of heavenly shapes”. According to The New York Times, “she contends they are not shapes of constellations, but of what might be called counter constellations, the irregularly-shaped dark patches within the twinkling expanse of the Milky Way” Aveni criticized her work for failing to account for all the details.
In 1985, the archaeologists Johan Reinhard published archaeological, ethnographic, and historical data demonstrating that worship of mountains and other water sources predominated in Nazca religion and economy from ancient to recent times. He theorized that the lines and figures were part of religious practices involving the worship of deities associated with the availability of water, which directly related to the success and productivity of crops. He interpreted the lines as sacred paths leading to places where these deities could be worshiped. The figures were symbols representing animals and objects meant to invoke the gods’ aid in supplying water. The precise meanings of many of the individual geoglyphs remained unknown as of 2013.
Henri Stierlin, a Swiss art historian specializing in Egypt and the Middle East, published a book in 1983 linking the Nazca Lines to the production of ancient textiles that archeologists have found wrapping mummies of the Paracas culture. He contended that the people may have used the lines and trapezes as giant, primitive looms to fabricate the extremely long strings and wide pieces of textiles typical of the area. According to his theory, the figurative patterns (smaller and less common) were meant only for ritualistic purposes. This theory is not widely accepted, although scholars have noted similarities in patterns between the textiles and the Nazca Lines, which they take as sharing in a common culture.
Satellite picture of an area containing lines: North is to the right. (Coordinates:
WikiMiniAtlas 14°43′S 75°08′W / 14.717°S 75.133°W / -14.717; -75.133)
Other theories were that the geometric lines could indicate the flow of water, irrigation schemes, or be a part of rituals to “summon” water. The spiders, birds and plants may be fertility symbols. It has also been theorized that the lines could act as an astronomical calendar.
Phyllis Pitluga, senior astronomer at the Adler Planetarium and a protégé of Reiche, performed computer-aided studies of star alignments. She asserted the giant spider figure is an anamorphic diagram of the constellation Orion. She further suggested that three of the straight lines leading to the figure were used to track the changing declinations of the three stars of Orion’s Belt. In a critique of her analysis, Dr. Anthony F. Aveni noted she did not account for the other 12 lines of the figure. He commented generally on her conclusions, saying:
I really had trouble finding good evidence to back up what she contended. Pitluga never laid out the criteria for selecting the lines she chose to measure, nor did she pay much attention to the archaeological data Clarkson and Silverman had unearthed. Her case did little justice to other information about the coastal cultures, save applying, with subtle contortions, Urton’s representations of constellations from the highlands. As historian Jacquetta Hawkes might ask: was she getting the pampa she desired?
Jim Woodmann theorized that the Nazca lines could not have been made without some form of manned flight to see the figures properly. Based on his study of available technology, he suggests a hot-air balloon was the only possible means of flight. To test this hypothesis, Woodmann made a hot-air balloon using materials and techniques he understood to have been available to the Nazca people. The balloon flew, after a fashion. Most scholars have rejected Woodmann’s thesis as ad hoc because of the lack of any evidence of such balloons.
Cahuachi was a major ceremonial center of the Nasca civilization in Peru, occupied from between AD 1-500, and it was important among the Nazca people as a ceremonial center during that time. The site is located near the Nazca lines, and evidence clearly connects Cahuachi with the construction of the lines.
Cahuachi is an enormous site, including some 370 acres in area, dominated by a central pyramid and plaza. It was a major center of the Nasca during the early period (before about AD 450), and was the central residence and seat of power. After then, Nasca society diversified, but Cahuachi remained an important site, for rituals and burials. At least 5000 tombs have been identified, many of them have been looted. The site has been intensively studied by a team led by Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici.
Bus to Lima