Crystalline Rainbow

Posts tagged ‘Cuzco’

Handmade Ceremonial Cusco Q’ero Chumpi Healing Stones

HANDMADE SHAMAN CUSCO Q’ERO ANDEAN CHUMPI HEALING STONE – 7 POINT SET (can be ordered via Ebay)

Chumpi Khuyas energy Stones

Andean Chumpi Healing Stone Set

The khuyas energy stones, are stones used by a line of Andean shaman, who work with ñawis (chakras) and the energy structure called chumpi (power strips).

Every Ñawi and chumpi has an assigned corresponding energy stone, which are distinguished by their shape (for example, the number of sides, two three or four) or recorded or containing drawings, the total number of khuyas is usually five, seven or nine.

The ideal material from which they are made is red or black hematite ore, having high strength and magnetic properties such as glass and magnetism at the same time, they can be found in soapstone and alabaster (Huamanga Stone), which was easier to work with.

The khuyas are used to open ñawis (ñawi kichay), and to extract the savings (designed energy), and then close them; and to weave chumpis (chumpi away), i.e. fill the cracks and strengthen our energy body (poqpo) to create an energy envelope (walthay) that conveniently protect us.

Before using the stones for any purpose they must be cleaned, in the Andean world the stones have identity, vitality and energy and therefore deserve attention and even intangible affection. In this regard the khuyas stones come alive; there are ways to purify them.

For example:

* Let them stand in the light of the full moon, to clean and to recharge them with energy (Sami energy).

* Allow drops of tap water, from the bath or shower.

* Leave cardboard wrapped in letter or in the refrigerator overnight, the cold has a purifying power.

* Let the stones stand at dawn (at sunrise), for an hour.

While this is being done, you can meditate and visualize different ways of channeling the energy that falls on the stones, accepting the Sami energy (pure energy) as an everyday routine.

For those familiar with the practice of reiki, which is meditation and guided visualizations, there is a psychic form that can be applied to the stones, when you have cleaned them and in a meditational position, the stones are held with both hands, and then visualize the above techniques in a mental and energetic way, this method is only possible if the stones have been previously purified by their owner, physically discharging any gravitational force that they may contain.

If we work with an Andean table or (misha) or other power objects, stones are efficient channels for transmitting refined energy, you can even charge other stones for massage or energy work once our khuyas are operational.

The khuyas are only interested in their owner, and the combined affect he receives, in this regard and is not recommended to use the khuyas outside.

 

 

Chumpi stones (sometimes called Apu Stones) are healing stones from the Peruvian Andes. These stones are worked with for clearing the energy centers, protective work, and grounding work.

“Chumpi” is a Quechua word that means “belt”. This refers to the stones use in administering what is called “The Bands of Power” ceremony. The Bands of Power are protective rings or fields of energy that surround a person. They are each linked to an energy center and act to seal a person’s energy field and ward off harmful energies that would normally find their way through our natural energetic defenses.

The word “Apu” is the Quechua word for “mountain” and refers to the stones’ link to the Sacred Mountains. Each stone is linked to a Sacred Mountain and carries the energy of that mountain with it. When the Chumpi Stones are placed upon a person we can wake up the energy of the mountains as well, which enables a person to ground and anchor themselves within their own power. They are then able to sit within themself “as a mountain sits”… firm, strong, and self-empowered.

The Chumpi Stones are also worked with to open, clear, and empower a person’s energy centers. Just as our physical body has different organs that maintain different life functions, our energetic body has energy centers (sometimes called chakras) which also maintain different life functions- but on an energetic level. Sometimes these energy centers become blocked, closed, or weakened. The Chumpis can draw out dense energy and blockages as well as open them and balance their flow.

The Chumpi Stones that we work with in our practice come from the Sacred Valley region of the Cusco Peruvian Andes. They are made of Marble- Like stone and were hand carved by the shamans from that region. These Chumpis were also blessed to us by a Q’ero (traditional Andean shaman). They are powerful tools for healing.

Chumpi Stones:The Stones hold the keys to the cosmology of the Inca culture and have  the power to generate a web of connection  with the elements of creations; Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and pure spirit.

The name of the  7 sacred mountains are: Apu Sacsayhuaman, Apu Salcantay, Apu Ausangate, Apu Pachatusan, Apu Senccapicol, Apu Machupicchu and Apu Chicon.

Approx Size : 4 inches around (each)

Material : Marble- Like stone

Origin :  Cusco – Perú

Culture: Quechua

 Welcome Ceremony – August 29, 2017

Welcome Ceremony

Ceremonial Q'ero Chumpi Stones

Films of Peru June, 2017

One of the members shared two films with us. Unfortunately I cannot upload them via the media library but here are the links via face book.

https://www.facebook.com/carla.harren/videos/10214398675707642/

 

https://www.facebook.com/carla.harren/videos/10214398692988074/

 

Monday, June 12 – Journey within Peru.

Open Space in Cuzco – GAP (Galactic  Activation Portal with High Resonance and Clarity). Afternoon and evening free to explore.

Cuzco-Page

Personal notes:

We started the morning with breakfast together and a layout via Arthur and the Arthurian Legend cards. A small group (including myself) decided to take a taxi to the Site at Puka Pukara and than walk back to the center of Cusco. The other group walked from the Hotel to the Site. See below for more information about Puka Pukara.

 

Pieter Tigelaar contacted one of the ladies of our group to see where we were so that we could join up with them. Unfortunately there were more entrances so we were unable to connect with each other. Pieter however did give instructions that we were to attune and align with a series of rocks and do a ceremony there together.

One of the ladies had her pendulum with her and looked at the map where we would be guided to visit there. As we walked without a guide along the Site we were not able to find the first area. We than went back down and found the stones above. They carried various energies with them. One very soft and gentle, another very direct.

We walked further in this ally way and we discovered the teeth of the puma in the rocks.

Whilst walking further we understood why Pieter was unable to find us. There was another entrance here as well were the other group were looking for us.

We than walked back a ways to discover which rock formation was being requested by guidance. There was a shaman guide who kept drawing our attention to him. At one point I saw him with his Chakana. He used it as a pendulum to demonstrate further that he wished to assist us.

We decided with consent of each other to follow him. He brought us to a rock formation and he explained to me that this was where the ceremonies too place for the Solstice. The energy was building up and when we walked further I was drawn to go into a portal way of rocks. At the end a large horizontal standing rock was calling. Along the sides the vertical rocks formed a passageway. As I walked into this formation it felt and I could see that every rock was a portal/passageway entrance towards the horizontal rock. Like a ceremonial activation of DNA which triggered the Kundalini. The rest of the group followed me into this passageway. When returning I was shown by guidance to spiral back through the rocks like a serpent taking off its old skin and allowing the new skin to be revealed. After this we stood in a circle to send blessings to the Highest Good of All. At a certain point I was ordered to leave the circle. What I than saw were past lives. One of them was children that were offered. Children of Pure Heart Love Light whilst I stood there not being able to rescue them or be of assistance. I broke down in deep sorrow and tears and the group came around me to support and clear this for the area. I left a crystal behind as a token of gratitude.

We than walked to the other entrance and on our way one of the ladies was called to go to another portal passageway. Together we walked to the entrance and allowed the surrender to this passageway. For both of us it was a old memory connected to Egypt and its temples there. Once again it was a portal passageway of initiation. Thank you dear lady for leading us there.

We than decided to walk back to the city of Cuzco. There was a beautiful path especially for hikers that lead us into the city.

Originally it was meant to be  free day but due to the flight delays the program changed to in the morning a visit to a Site and the rest of the day off. I was going to meet Fernando Valencia Saire in Cusco that was connected to the Quero’s and would have brought me to a healing center along with this tell me more about the project for a day care and school that was starting up. This personal contact was recommended by Lance Aubrey from Canada who is also involved in the start of this project. Unfortunately I had to send him a message that I was unable to meet up with him.

Overnight stay at the Royal Inka Hotel.

Cuzco

KIN 20 – Yellow Resonant SunGAP – of the Crystal Rabbit Moon of Cooperation, light code 20:7:14 to align with Source to inspire yourself, others and creative projects. Be inspired to channel the alignment with the Universal Fire of Love of Life and Enlightenment.

May the natural supportive spiral movement BE the self-generative flow to transform and heal. The endless source of energy of truth. Within this spiral movement choices can be made with the Divine Free Will of Wisdom to be challenged, strengthened and be in the opportunity of power of love loyalty to give and receive in all relationships. To be within the hidden power of Ancient Trust of Being whilst it nourishing nature embraces the birthing of enlightenment in its centering, grounding and anchoring.

 

Yellow Resonant Sun GAPChant: Cauac, Eb, Oc, Imix, AHAU

Planets: Pluto, Earth, Mercury, Neptune

Tone 7 is the inspiration of channeling the alignment

Archetypes20.Yellow Sun

General Information about Puka Pukara:

Puka Pukara Ruins

Puka Pukara (Quecha puka red, pukara fortress, “red fortress”, hispanicized spellings Pucapucara, Puca Pucara, Puca Pucará) is a site of military ruins in Peru situated in the Cuzco Region, Cuzco Province, Cuzco District near Cuzco. This fort is made of large walls, terraces, and staircases and was part of defense of Cusco and the Inca Empire in general.

 

The name probably comes from the red color of the rocks at dusk. Puka Pukara is an example of military architecture that also functioned as an administrative center.

 

Puka Pukara is located in mid-southern Peru, roughly 4–5 miles (7 kilometers) from Cuzco on the road to Pisac and near the Antisuyo, the jungle portion of the former Incan empire. The fort is located on high ground overlooking the Cusco valley and Tambo Machay, creating a beautiful – and useful – view. When it was built, it was probably placed so that these areas were visible to give the military extra vision over important parts of the empire.

 

Although there is not as much known about Puka Pukara as a lot of other Incan ruins, there is a theory that this site was probably constructed during the reign of Pachacutec. Since he was the ninth ruler of the empire, it can be said that Puka Pukara was one of the later constructions. The stones used to build most of the walls are very irregularly shaped, stacked together in kind of a here-and-there manner to create walls that are functional, but lacking very much beauty as far as architecture goes (this contrasts with a lot of other sites in the area). Because of this, it is possible that the buildings and walls were built in somewhat of a rush because the military headquarters that Puka Pukara became was thought to be needed very quickly. When it was first built, the differently sized and shaped stones that now appear grey may have been a red color (hence its name, red fortress) due to all the iron in the limestone used in the walls.

 

There is a small amount of argument over what Puka Pukara’s real function was when the Incan empire was still thriving. As stated above, it was at least partially a military base and, since it was on such a major road and overlooking so many important spots, it was a very good place to spot people causing trouble. Officials could have used it as a checkpoint on the road, stopping those who looked suspicious from travelling any further into the empire where they could potentially wreak havoc. It could have served as a stop for military groups travelling nearby, too. Another theory is that it was a place of rest for hunters and weary travelers, as well as Incan nobles, due to all of its luxurious baths, canals, plazas, fountains, and separate rooms.

Sunday, June 11 – Journey within Peru

Sunday, June 11 – Journey within Peru. (overnight stay in Cuzco)

Sacsayhuaman: (Pre-Inca Mountain Fortress).

Personal notes:

The other group members arrived early for breakfast from their flight Lima to Cuzco. They looked exhausted seeing they got up around 5 a.m. in the morning to catch the first flight to Cuzco. We had a lovely breakfast together.

The small group (6 persons) I was in was instructed to go to San Francisco Church and Monastery in Cuzco together to connect there and do a ceremony together. One of the ladies of our group was suffering from the high altitude effects but was brave enough to come with us. One of the main themes was communication with each other.

Upon arrival on the grounds one of the ladies suggested we should express ourselves with each other and share our opinion with each other. This was for me a opportunity to apologies for what happened in the previous church in Lima to the group. Others also expressed what they wished to relate as well.

When we entered the church a mass or service was going on. We sat in the back aisle with each other for awhile. Than a lady with such a pure voice started to sing a hymn in the service and we all stood up to embrace each other in the circle. I started to sing with her and every fiber of my body reacted. We than silently went outside to buy some candles in every color of the rainbow as one of the ladies of the group suggested. By the time we returned, the mass had ended and we roomed around in the church in silence. First we went to different areas that was connected with Francisco and other monks. Than we gather at Maria’s altar and placed the candles there for everyone in silent prayer.

After this we entered the museum of the monastery. There was one burial chamber where one of the ladies placed her skull and I joined in as well with the crystal bag with the skulls and crystal plus the World Essence Spray sending blessings to the highest good of All.

We than walked back to the Hotel where someone laid out a Arthurian Legend card layout. A conversation started with the interpretation. At the end a discussion occurred between one of the man and one of the ladies. Unfortunately this discussion ended not truly in fair understanding, honor and respect for each other.

In the afternoon in the Hotel we met Fernando Escobar, his wife and son, who shared his knowledge and ceremonies with us. All together we went to Sacred Site Saqsayhuaman to connect and listen to the history of the place plus the ceremony on a hill top overlooking the Site with Fernando playing his drum and whistling. His young son had shown us where we could sit in contemplation. Fernando’s son handed us all a Chakana to wear around our neck. Deepest Gratitude Amigo.

In the evening we were free to go wherever we wished too.

 

Blue Rhythmic StormChant: Ahau, Cauac, Muluc, Ik, CAUAC

KIN 19 – Blue Rhythmic Storm of the Crystal Rabbit Moon of Cooperation, light code 19:6:13 to organise resources and bring it efficiently into balance in your life within the catalyzation of self generative energy flow to transform and heal. You feel Blue Storm when the truth is being suppressed. Within the natural supportive spiral movement of Unconditional Love and Universal Consciousness the onward move is within transformation to be spiraled into the challenged, strengthened and creation of opportunity of Trusting the purification especially the emotions to be what is and observing without judgement. As the hidden power within reveals the communication breath of Spirit.

Planets: Pluto, Mercury, Uranus

Tone 6 is to balance and organize equality

Archetypes19.Blue Storm

Sacsayhuaman

Sacsaywaman

Located on the outskirts of the ancient Inca capital of Cuzco. It rests on an artificially levelled mountaintop, and consists of three outer lines of gargantuan walls, 1,500 ft. long and 54 ft. wide, surrounding a paved area containing a circular stone structure believed to be a solar calendar. The ruins also include a 500,000-gallon water reservoir, storage cisterns, ramps, citadels and underground chambers

Sacsayhuaman was built overlooking the Inca navel off Cuzco (Cusco). The ‘fortress’ is composed of three large terraced walls, which are said to represent the ‘Teeth of the Jaguar’ (The original city of Cuzco was said to have been in the shape of a jaguar). Above the magnificent terraces are the remains of circular structure called Muyuqmarka.

Sacsayhuaman in Quechua the language means “Satisfied Falcon”

Sacsaywaman.2

Although it is commonly referred to as a ‘fortress‘, the early chroniclers were unanimous in their opinion that it had a reputation as a Royal House of the Sun:

* Garcilaso de la Vega, who sates in his “Comentarios Reales” (“Royal Comments”) that people from Cusco knew, from ancient times, that this architectonic complex was actually a Royal House of the Sun. In chapter VI of his Seventh Book he says: “…an Inca with royal blood left the fortress as a messenger of the Sun…he left the fortress and not the Temple of the Sun, because it was said that he was a messenger of war not of peace, that the fortress was the House of the Sun”.

* Pedro Cieza de León, Spanish chronicler of the conquest times, states in his book “El Señorío de los Incas” (“The Incan Dominion”) that the Royal House of the Sun was located to the north of the city of Cusco, within a collado.

* Martín de Murúa, also a Spanish chronicler, states that Sacsayhuamán “…was, at first, the House of the Sun, and nowadays it is only a witness of its ruin”.

 

Some of the stones show indentations which may have served a purpose in the construction process.

Sacsaywaman.1

Although a substantial part of the walls has been removed over the ages (as much as 3m along their lengths according to archaeologists), what remains does so because it was too large to move.

Tambomachay (The Inca Baths)

Commonly referred to as the ‘Baños del Inca‘ or the ‘Inca baths’, Tambomachay is believed to have been a site for ritual bathing. The excellent quality of the stonework suggests that the location was of importance to the Incas. The ruins basically consist of 3 tiered platforms.

Cusco.baths

The top level has four trapezoidal niches; on the next level an underground spring emerges directly from a hole at the base of the stonework and from here cascades down to the bottom platform, while on the lower platform the spring water splits into two channels, both pouring the last metre into a stone basin.

Cusco.baths.1

The Stones:

From the simple perspective of construction techniques, this is probably one of the best examples of masonry in all the Pre-Columbian Americas.

The quarries for the stones are located 9 miles and 20 miles away, on the other side of a mountain range and a deep river gorge. Within a few hundred yards of the complex is a single stone that was carved from the mountainside, moved some distance, and then abandoned. The stone contains steps, platforms and depressions, probably intended as a part of the fortifications. It now sits upside-down, the size of a five-storey house.

The largest stone blocks at Sacsayhuaman (some of which are over 28ft high), are regularly estimated to weigh over 120 tons (2). while more enthusiastic estimates place the largest stones at 300 tons (4), 361 tons (21), 440 tons (1). So, precise was the masonry that one block on the outer walls, for example, has faces cut to fit perfectly with 12 other blocks. Other blocks were cut with as many as 36 sides. All the blocks were fitted together so precisely that a thickness gauge could not be inserted between them.

 

The Muyuqmarka: (The Cuzco Sundial, The ‘Eye of the Jaguar’)

Cuzco1860b.jpg

On top of the Sacsayhuaman fortress are the remains of a structure discovered in 1934.

The Muyuqmarka consists of three concentric, circular stone walls connected by a series of radial walls. There are three channels constructed to bring water into what many scientists consider to be a reservoir. A web-like pattern of 34 lines intersects at the centre and also there is a pattern of concentric circles that corresponded to the location of the circular walls.

Originally, the Myuqmarka was a building with 4 superposed floors. The first body would have had a square floor; the second would have been cylindrical; the third would have had also a cylindrical shape. The successive would have formed circular cultivation terraces with decreasing width, being the widest of 3.6 m and the narrowest of 3 m. The tower would have ended up in a conic ceiling. Muyu Marca must have reached a total height of 20 meters. It was as amazing work that generated the admiration of several chroniclers. The Spaniards destroyed it, in spite of the protests both from Cieza and Inca Garcilaso.

The Eye of the Jaguar.

 

 

Article: 2003: SOURCE: EFE News Agency , March 9, 2003.

Ancient Tunnel Discovered in Sacred Inca City of Cuzco  

This find may form part of a series of galleries, chambers, fountains and ancient mausoleums located under the ancient Incan city of Cuzco.

A tunnel measuring 2 km in length, linking the Koricancha temple with the fortress of Sacsayhuaman, located on the outskirts of the Peruvian city of Cuzco, was discovered by Spanish archaeologist Anselm Pi Rambla, in the ancient Inca capital. The tunnel may form part of a series of galleries, chambers, fountains and ancient mausoleums which are probably under the city of Cuzco, according to measurments made by Pi Rambla as part of the Wiracocha Project, initiated in August 2000. The Spanish scholar stated before the Peruvian Congress’s Cultural Commission that he had discovered the subterranean passageway, which in his opinion, “may change perspectives on Peruvian history.” According to radar images obtained by Pi Rambla, the tunnel links directly to the Temple of the Sun or Korikancha, with the Convent of Santa Catalina or Marcahuasi, with the Cathedral or Temple of Inca Wiracocha, with the palace of Huascar, with the Temple of Manco Capac or Colcampata and with the Huamanmarca. All of these buildings are in a perfect astronomical alignment, which confirms that ancient Peruvians also guided their constructions by the location of the Sun, the Moon and the constellations. Access to a tunnel at the Sacsayhuaman Fortress was already known, but it was condemned in 1923 to avoid the disappearances of curiosity seekers who entered it, since its trajectory was unknown.

The archaeologist explained that this would involve a “Pre-Inca citadel”, belonging to a culture that has yet to be considered..

“We calculate that it would be some 100 meters under Cuzco…the great question is ascertaining what age it belonged to,” adds the archaeologist. In May, Pi Rambla will spearhead the excavation work aimed at confirming the location of the subterranean galleries which confirm the stories of chroniclers like Garcilaso de la Vega and Cieza de León regarding an underground citadel in Cuzco.

Saturday, June 10 – Journey within Peru

Saturday, June 10 – Flight Lima – Cusco

Ancient Inca City – overnight in Cusco

 Personal notes:

The from Lima to Cusco in the morning was cancelled by the Peruvian Airline that was the first news we heard at the airport. Later on the news was that with the 6 of us we were able to fly to Cusco. So the group was separated. The others were offered meals and a hotel for the night and an early flight in the morning to arrive in Cusco on June 11 breakfast time.

We were lucky to have 1 member of the group that flew to Cusco with us who spoke basic Spanish. She was handed over the Hotel vouchers and a tourist ticket voucher for each of us. Along with this there was a local guide and bus plus chauffeur to pick us up at the Airport.

cusco-boleto-turistico-01

Cusco Boleto Turistico

Admission to many of the most popular places of interest in Cusco can only be made using a ‘Tourist Ticket’ (Boleto Turistico). This ticket allows you entrance to many sites in and around Cusco and costs 130 Peruvian Soles (approx US$48) and 70 Peruvian Soles for students with an ISIC card (approx US$26). The ticket is valid for 10 days and can be bought at the COSITUC office at Avenida Sol 103 office 102 (Mon-Fri 8am-6.30pm , Sat 8am-2pm) or at any of the sites included on the ticket above. (just in case you were wondering COSITUC stands for Comite de Servicios Integrados Turistico Culturales Cusco) www.cosituc.gob.pe

In the early evening we arrived at Cusco. There was a festival going on which lasted many days for the upcoming Solstice on June 20. The Hotel Royal Inka 1, in colonial style is amazing. See also www.royalinkahotel.pe  a good place to stay but very confusing to find your room. Once I figured out the easiest route to find the room everything was okay. I was a bit dizzy from the high altitude here but after a nice cup of tea it settled down a bit. In the evening you can still hear the festival activities going on.

Scan_20170705 (10)

 

In the evening we went to have dinner in The Greens Restaurant, Santa Catalina Angosta, 135, Cusco, Peru. Fantastic vegetarian food and I had a special Asperger dish. When we returned we all went to have a good night sleep seeing we were up very early in the morning to catch a plane in Lima plus all the waiting at the Airport.

The Greens

The festival and music continued in the plaza in front of us plus in the street. Although after 15 minutes and a meditation I no longer heard them. In the second week of June – Cusquena International Beer and Music Festival. Lively, with big Latin pop and jazz names.

Foto0716

 

KIN 18 – White Overtone Mirror of the Crystal Rabbit Moon of Cooperation, light code 18:5:12 to gather inner and outer resources to empower yourself and others. To call upon the empowerment of radiance within the Cosmic Order of Reflection and Divine Truth.

 

White Overtone MirrorChant: Imix, Cimi, Lamat, Akbal, ETZNAB

Planets: Neptune, Mars, Venus, Saturn

Tone 5 is to call upon, empower, radiance

Archetypes18.White Mirror

 

City walk Cusco

Cusco.3  

Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (Spanish: Cuzco, Quechua Qusqu or Qosqo, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region as well as the Cusco Province. In 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft).

The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire. from the 13th until the 16th century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year. The Constitution of Peru designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru.

Cusco.1

Killke culture

The Killke people occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Inca in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, established that Killke constructed the fortress about 1100. The Inca later expanded and occupied the complex in the 13th century. On 13 March 2008, archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and aqueduct system at Saksaywaman. The temple covers some 2,700 square feet (250 square meters) and contains 11 rooms thought to have held idols and mummies, establishing its religious purpose. Together with the results of excavations in 2007, when another temple was found at the edge of the fortress, this indicates a longtime religious as well as military use of the facility.

Inca history

Cusco was long an important center of indigenous peoples. It was the capital of the Inca Empire (13th century-1532). Many believe that the city was planned as an effigy in the shape of a puma, a sacred animal. How Cusco was specifically built, or how its large stones were quarried and transported to the site remain undetermined. Under the Inca, the city had two sectors: the urin and hanan. Each was divided to encompass two of the four provinces, Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Kuntisuyu (SW) and Qullasuyu (SE). A road led from each of quarter to the corresponding quarter of the empire.

Each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in Cusco, restricted to the quarter that corresponded to the quarter in which he held territory. After the rule of Pachacuti, when an Inca died, his title went to one son and his property was given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives (split inheritance). Each title holder had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own land for his family to keep after his death.

According to Inca legend, the city was rebuilt by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, the man who transformed the Kingdom of Cuzco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire of Tawantinsuyu. Archaeological evidence, however, points to a slower, more organic growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti. The city was constructed according to a definite plan in which two rivers were channeled around the city. Archaeologists have suggested that this city plan was replicated at other sites.

The city fell to the sphere of Huascar during the Inca Civil War after the death of Huayna Capac in 1527. It was captured by the generals of Atahualpa in April 1532 in the Battle of Quipaipan. Nineteen months later, Spanish explorers invaded the city and gained control because of their arms and horses, employing superior military technology.

Present

A major earthquake on 21 May 1950 caused the destruction of more than one third of the city’s structures. The Dominican Priory and Church of Santo Domingo, which were built on top of the impressive Qurikancha (Temple of the Sun), were among the affected colonial era buildings. Inca architecture withstood the earthquake. Many of the old Inca walls were at first thought to have been lost after the earthquake, but the granite retaining walls of the Qurikancha were exposed, as well as those of other ancient structures throughout the city.

Restoration work at the Santo Domingo complex exposed the Inca masonry formerly obscured by the superstructure without compromising the integrity of the colonial heritage. Many of the buildings damaged in 1950 had been impacted by an earthquake only nine years previously.

Since the 1990s, tourism has increased. Currently, Cusco is the most important tourist destination in Peru. Under the administration of mayor Daniel Estrada Pérez, a staunch supporter of the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, between 1983 and 1995 the Quecha name Qosqo was officially adopted for the city.

Cusco.2

 

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